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South Sudan makes us all look bad; we must act now

Posted CHARLES ONYANGO-OBBO

on  Thursday, May 18   2017 at  19:14

The sacking of an army chief anywhere in the world, particularly Africa, is usually big news.

But the panicked reaction to the news that South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir fired army head General Paul Malong on Tuesday was extraordinary.

Many feared that the situation could get worse in the world’s newest nation, which has been ravaged by war since Kiir fell out with his deputy Riek Machar, resulting in savage fighting that made many ashamed of knowing the South Sudanese.

They had reason to be afraid. Malong was no longer an ordinary army chief. A polygamist with 40 wives and enough children to fill two villages, he was seen as the puppet master in South Sudan, and Kiir the puppet. He was the hard line Dinka iron fist behind the throne.

On Wednesday, Kiir trotted out the SPLA spokesman to say that Malong had withdrawn with his security guards to outside of the capital, Juba, but was not planning a rebellion.

Maybe he won’t, because the new army chief James Ajongo is alleged to have been picked by Malong. He is a kind of Malong lite.

Hopefully, Kiir will now strike a more moderate posture, because he may still have a country, but will soon run out people.

More than 1.8 million South Sudanese have fled the country as refugees, according to the latest UN figures. Most have ended up in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Sudan.

Uganda hosts most of the refugees, nearly 800,000. In Kampala on Tuesday, Prime Minister Ruhakana Rugunda said the country would next month seek $2 billion at a UN refugee summit in Kampala to help fund relief operations for the South Sudanese refugees.

With a population of 12.4 million, South Sudan has made nearly 15 per cent of its population refugees in fewer than four years.

In addition, more than 3.5 million people have been internally displaced since the fighting erupted in mid-December 2013.

If the war doesn’t end, and intensifies, in another three or so years, more than 25 per cent of South Sudanese could be refugees. And if the number of IDPs were also to double over the same period, accounting for those who will have been slaughtered in war, fallen to disease, or starved to death in the famine, virtually the whole population of South Sudan would be living outside their homes and off their land.

For a country like Uganda, the prospect of say two million South Sudanese pouring into the country by 2020 is scary, its much-praised refugee policy notwithstanding.

The only place where the South Sudanese are living properly at home could be the street on which Kiir lives in Juba.

That is overdramatised, yes, but it is to make the point that Africa must finally do something bold to stop the madness in South Sudan.

Among other things, it should ensure that Malong leaves South Sudan, either by force, or by being paid off Yahya Jammeh-style. He has a lot of prime real estate in Nairobi and Kampala, and a small country of a family to feed, so he may be susceptible to generous inducements.

And Africa needs to read the riot act to Kiir to piece the country back together, or marshal an invasion force and oust him if he won’t. South Sudan makes us all look bad.

Charles Onyango-Obbo is publisher of data visualiser Africapaedia and Rogue Chiefs. Twitter@cobbo3

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The curious case of $2.2 million jackpot winner

Posted CHARLES ONYANGO-OBBO

on  Thursday, May 11   2017 at  18:28

You just never see some things coming. Kenya has a new hero. He is Samuel Abisai, whose great achievement was winning the $2.2 million (Sh221 million SportPesa Mega Jackpot.

Some media reports have declared it the biggest payout in African gaming history; others said it was the second biggest.

The 28-year-old Abisai has received the red carpet treatment since, and returned to his Kakamega home town as a celebrity in a convoy.

The Star newspaper reported, a little breathlessly: “Business in Kakamega Town came to a standstill as … Abisai made a grand return to his home.

“… Abisai arrived … his six-vehicle convoy was led by police outriders.

“Traders in the Kakamega main market who do business with Abisai’s father Mabinda, who sells ropes for a living, abandoned their stalls and joined his convoy to have a glimpse of him as isukuti (drum) beats filled the air.

“Boda boda riders briefly halted their trade to join the procession…”

Sports betting has become a nightmare for many parents and guardians of public morality, not just in Kenya, but also all over Africa. In Kampala, at the last count there were reportedly more than 2,000 of them.

A powerful story

Daily, there are stories of young people being ruined by betting, squandering away their little moneys, diverting school fees, or stealing from relatives to fund the habits.

The guardians of the nation’s work ethic are in despair, arguing that it threatens the republic, because it promotes luck and providence as the source of wealth, and not honest old-fashioned toil.

Because Abisai’s $2.2 million jackpot win makes him perhaps the only modern-day Kenyan to earn that amount of money in a day, and without stealing it, it is a powerful story that will be hard to compete against.

Expect the already massive betting industry, and related parts of it such as the mobile money bet placements, to soar.

The attraction with betting, as opposed to gambling at the tables, is that the returns can be humongous for a very puny investment. Abisai wagered only $2 (Sh200).

But there is also a powerful democratic undercurrent to it. Anyone can win. Games of chance don’t know tribe, class, or gender.

There is no political or distributive process in Kenya that would have put $20,000 (Sh2 million), let alone, $2.2 million, in Abisai’s pocket.

Still, it is as good a moment as any to reflect on the disproportionate role chance and the moods of the elements, plays in determining the lives of Africans and how much our governments, and other institutions, are still unable to tame fortune.

A few weeks ago, the newspapers were full of stories of how drought was wreaking havoc in parts of Kenya.

Emaciated hungry people, landscapes littered by skeletons of cattle that had died because they couldn’t get water and pasture, and denunciations of the government for failing to do enough to stop the suffering.

Levels of water

This week, the story has swung 360 degrees. The rains have now come. Floods are sweeping away homes, bridges, roads, cattle, and a few children have reportedly drowned.

Soon, dams that were dry, will be threatened by high levels of water.

The big story in western Kenya has since January been the toll that the water hyacinth is exacting on Lake Victoria, and related fishing and water-bound economic activities.

This week there was good news on that front. Business on the lake is beginning to pick up. The water hyacinth has gone.

No, we didn’t finally find a way to kill the weed.

Scientific advancement

The answer to its disappearance was tucked away in the last two paragraphs of a story in the Daily Nation.

The rains, according to experts, had scattered the weed. Also, they said, the dry ones could have been soaked by rainwater and sank to the bottom of the lake.

It all reminded me of a story some years ago, after the Finance minister in Mozambique, a country that suffers weather extremes, went to parliament to promise that the economy would bounce back in the new financial year.

Why was he optimistic? Because, he said, the meteorologists had forecast good weather for the coming year!

He did not base his projections on policy, planned investment, or scientific advancement. He had placed all his bets on the clouds.

So, perhaps, Abisai did much better. At least he went out and bet his $2 on a series of match outcomes.

The author is publisher of Africa data visualiser Africapedia.com and explainer site Roguechiefs.com. Twitter@cobbo3

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Eritrea must release its detained journalists

Posted BJORN TUNBACK

on  Wednesday, May 10   2017 at  18:34

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights – having started its May session in Niamey this week - condemns Eritrea’s treatment of Press Freedom and its journalists.

This is the clear outcome of a case for one of Eritrea’s many imprisoned journalist, Swedish-Eritrean Dawit Isaak. The Commission demands:

• That Eritrea releases Dawit Isaak.
• That Eritrea lets him meet family and legal representatives immediately.
• That Eritrea prepares to pay compensation.
• That Eritrea lifts the ban on independent media.

Dawit Isaak was detained in September 2001 when the government shut all independent newspapers in the country. In the more than 15 years that have passed since, Mr Isaak has never been charged or put to trial. He is isolated and held in an undisclosed location.

Sadly, he is not the only journalist Eritrea treats in this way. Many of his colleagues are also in detention. It is not surprising that Eritrea, for years, has been found in the bottom end of Reporters without Borders’ International Press Freedom Index.

Eritrea is ranked lowest of all countries on the African continent.

In 2011, the jurists Jesús Alcalá, Percy Bratt and Prisca Orsonneau, sent a writ for Habeas Corpus to the High Court in Asmara on Isaak’s behalf, with support of Reporters without Borders/Sweden.

African Charter

After over a year of complete passivity from the court, we turned to the Commission. That is a safeguard in the African Union.

A person who cannot find justice in his own country can turn to the Commission. Together with the African Court, the Commission is tasked with overseeing that the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights is respected.

The Commission’s decision in the Isaak case shows how Eritrea violates a series of articles in the African Charter:

• The right to a fair trial (Article 7.1)

• The right to legal representation (Article 7.1 c)

• The ban on torture (Article 5)

• The Freedom of Expression (Article 9)

• The right to one’s family (Article 18)

• That each country shall respect the Charter (Article 1)

The Commission is sharp in its findings. It “strongly urges” Eritrea to act on its decision and the Commission writes it must be done “without further delay”. This is in reference to an earlier decision in a case on the Eritrean journalists jailed in 2001. That case was finalised in 2007.

Eritrea has done nothing since. In the meanwhile, several of the journalists have died in detention. For them, the unlawful imprisonment turned into a death sentence.

No excuse

Our case was for Isaak, but referring to the earlier case, the Commissioners extend the decision to all journalists arrested in 2001.

Beside Isaak, Seyoum Tsehaye, Temesgen Gebreyesus and Emanuel Asrat are still believed to be alive. None of them has been sentenced or charged. All are isolated and held in secret locations.

The regime in Eritrea signed the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights voluntarily. This means they are breaking their own promise. Circumstances are no excuse.

Whenever we have met Eritrean representatives, as we did during the latest session before the Commission in the Gambia last October, they usually point to the border conflict with Ethiopia. In this Eritrea is right.

Letters of inquiry

It is clear that Ethiopia violates the Eritrean borders. But one violation does not justify another. The rules of Human Rights always apply.

In connection with its decision, the Commission asked Reporters without Borders to monitor what is being done by Eritrea to live up to it. We have sent letters of inquiry to the Eritrean government.

So far, we have not had any reply. But we will not let this be forgot.

Just days ago, on the International Day of Press Freedom May 3, Isaak was given the Unesco/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize. His young daughter had to represent him at the ceremony.

Having grown up without him, the daughter said she hoped to see him soon. Let us hope her wish will be fulfilled before long.

Eritrea must release its detained journalists.

Björn Tunbäck, Reporters without Borders/Sweden

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No worthy gubernatorial option for rational Nairobi voter

Posted CHARLES OMONDI

on  Thursday, April 20   2017 at  13:47

It is that time in our political cycle yet again, when hordes of Kenyans who believe they have what it takes offer themselves for various elective positions.

So many are they and their claimed credentials that were corruption and tribalism not the principle determinants of electoral decisions, many Kenyan voters would be literally lost, not knowing which way to cast their ballot.

Nowhere is this challenge more daunting for an average rational voter (sadly, the minority) than in the race for Nairobi gubernatorial seat.

So far, all indications point at a three-horse race pitting the incumbent Evans Kidero against Nairobi Senator Gidion Kioko Mbuvi, aka Mike Sonko and failed 2013 presidential candidate Peter Kenneth, or PK to his adoring supporters.

Swing a surprise

Perhaps, voluble and cantankerous Miguna Miguna could swing a surprise. But that is a story for another day.

For the majority of Nairobians, whose voting is determined by tribe and/or who bribes the most, the choice could not have been any easier.

A peep at the leading contenders:

Every alley

First, Evans Kidero. In him, Nairobians have a candidate whose reign could as well be a lesson on how not to run a city in the 21st century.

From the time he took office, Kidero has spectacularly failed to make a statement that there was a new sheriff in town. He has had no impact whatsoever in restoring order in the once green city in the sun.

From mounds of garbage at every street corner, a medley of hawkers at every alley and in front of every shop, and unplanned development sprouting up everywhere, total disregard of the traffic code on the roads, to city residents behaving like they were in a race for the most Neanderthal conduct crown and much, Kidero has left Nairobi worse than he found it.

Then comes Peter Kenneth. Here, Nairobians have a candidate fronted by what would pass for a cabal of ethnic supremacists and conspirators to whom Kenya’s capital is too important to be left in the hands of the “wrong” tribe.

Of course, PK tries to market himself  - unconvincingly so - as the suave urbane technocrat with the manual for fixing Nairobi’s myriad problems.

Many believe his bid is a mere stop gap measure in a wider scheme to perpetuate an ethnic hegemony, not only at the county, but also national level.

The perception

PK supporters harp on his purported exemplary performance as the MP for his native Gatanga, which only reinforces the perception that he believes in the tribe more than the nation.

His voting trends on critical matters before the House left no doubt about where he stands when confronted with the choice between the nation and the tribe.

There is also the small matter of how he secured himself the choicest government jobs without the requisite academic qualifications, though today he is a proud holder of two university degrees.

Readily available

To Mike Sonko. Sonko distinguishes himself by his reckless and uncultured demeanour. His academic credentials have been the subject of much debate as has been his record before the law.

Sonko does not seem to believe in a permanent solution to problem, but will always be readily available to firefight anywhere and everywhere.

He is fabulously rich, but the source of his wealth remains a matter of conjecture.

If you are a rational voter in Nairobi, my friend, I am sorry: You do not have a worthy candidate among the leading three!

 

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Academic freedom matters now more than ever

Posted GODWIN MURUNGA

on  Monday, April 17   2017 at  16:03

Ugandan Police arrested Dr Stella Nyanzi and arraigned her in court on two counts of ‘cyber harassment’ and ‘offensive communication’ under the Computer Misuse Act 2011.

Notably, this happened after she had a public spat with the First Lady and Education minister, Mrs Janet Museveni, because the ministry’s budget did not include resources to provide sanitary pads for school girls, a promise President Yoweri Museveni expressly made during the campaigns.

The Inspector-General of Police, Gen Kale Kayihura, ordered Dr Nyanzi’s arrest.

The police seem particularly irked that Dr Nyanzi described President Museveni as a ‘pair of buttocks’, language they found obscene and indecent.

Doctoral research

In Uganda, public debate has focused on vulgarity, something Dr Nyanzi has become the poster-child of, for which she is often condemned or dismissed.

Dr Nyanzi is an avid social media commentator; her contributions assuming an admirable ethnographic form.

She avidly records her observations, engagements and convictions.

She has done this for a long time, perhaps since her doctoral research in the Gambia.

Sexual metaphors

I have observed her take copious notes and use herself as a departure point to serious reflections on societal dynamics defined around sexuality.

Feminist thought is the critical pillar of Dr Nyanzi’s research focus on sexuality.

She has deployed ‘vulgarity’ and mobilised sexual metaphors to make social commentary.

The ‘vulgarity’ is discomforting to many; but that it is designed to shock is part of her method, and therefore perfectly in keeping with her academic vocation.

What is valuable is that she is able to easily and brazenly turn her intellectual focus into discomforting social commentary.

Prof Sylvia Tamale, herself a world renowned feminist researcher and editor of the path-breaking volume, African Sexualities, admitted to being “shocked and horrified, embarrassed and ashamed” by Dr Nyanzi’s nudity stunt, only to realise later “that (her) emotive response to Nyanzi’s protest was in keeping with societal attitudes that associate nakedness — especially the nakedness of a grown woman — with shame, perversity and taboo”.

You might disagree with Dr Nyanzi’s choice of words and modes of expression, but this choice can be defended intellectually.

There is no basis for restricting her rights to express them. She is an academic, above everything else.

Complete travesty

Her right to think and share her thoughts are inalienable. This is why it is a complete travesty to arrest her.

It is indeed tragic that as I wrote this, Dr Nyanzi was still held awaiting the hearing of her case on April 25.

Worse, the police think that she needs mental examination because she deploys vulgar vocabulary to protest a repressive government.

This, coming from our society where private lascivious conversations would make Donald Trump’s “locker-room talk” feel holy, reveals our hypocrisy.

Only last year, the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (Codesria) celebrated 25 years since its adoption of the Kampala Declaration on Intellectual Freedom and Social Responsibility.

Is explicit

This declaration is explicit on the academic rights to be enjoyed and the responsibility that go with those rights.

In either case, and also with respect to Ugandan law, there is nothing that indicts Dr Nyanzi.

Her arrest is an unacceptable travesty against academic freedom in particular.

Surprisingly, the response from institutions protecting academic freedoms is inaudible.

Be enormous

Instead of defending her, Makerere University compounded this repugnant abuse of state power by suspending Dr Nyanzi.

This, coming weeks after the Ugandan state detained at the port of entry the book, Controlling Dissent: Uganda’s 2016 Election, edited by Joe Oloka-Onyango and Josephine Ahikire, shows clearly that the era of needing to defend intellectual freedom is still here, and intellectuals cannot afford to sit back and watch these rights rolled back.

The cost of silence will ultimately be enormous.

As an academic, if for no other reason, I must register my utter disgust at the way Dr Nyanzi has been treated for courageously speaking truth to power.

Godwin R. Murunga teaches Development Studies at the University of Nairobi.

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Fighting over politicians can only destroy Kenya

Posted JANET OTIENO-PROSPER

on  Saturday, April 15   2017 at  17:55

Kenyans will, in August, vote for new leaders. Just a few months to the elections, people are seemingly charged, if social media posts are anything to go by.

People are saying who they will vote for and are spewing hatred at those with divergent opinions.

Some of the posts are so unsettling. We should thank God for enabling us to live in a beautiful country with so much diversity, thus the numerous opinions.

Though I know we are all subjects of biases, it is practically becoming difficult to have an educated conversation with someone from another political divide. We forget about issues that we need tackled and start dragging personalities in the mud. It is more about settling tribal scores; issues come last in their agenda.

Well educated

With the increasing political assaults on social media coming from people who are well educated and exposed, we need to be very afraid.

Michael Huemer, in his study; Why People are irrational about Politics, explains that there are several theories leading people to make different conclusions. One of them being miscalculation. Politics is a difficult subject to comprehend, thus many people unknowingly make mistakes, forcing them to disagree with others of different viewpoint.

Another one is ignorance, where people rush to certain conclusions because they lack sufficient information on political subject. This is why many political disputes are about the subjects rather than issues. Now you know where our personality-based politics originates from.

Fundamental values

Another one is divergent theory because people judge based on moral and evaluative issues, making them have fundamental values. Then we have irrational theory where people just refuse to reason.

So, we all fall in some category and that explains why some people get angry just by the mere presence of person with different political view. I know some of our political differences are quite puzzling, but we need to put our differences aside since we have goals as a nation.

These goals cannot be achieved since the verbal tirades make me believe that it will be impossible to find a common ground if leaders don't reign in their online armies.

Kill each other

We need to end these long-winded arguments on social media platforms because shameless fights won't take us anywhere.

Let's just battle it out at the ballot. You know I have wondered why human beings abuse and even kill each other for politics and ethnicity instead of viewing others as diverse opportunities to make our nation a better place.

Politicians know how to fuel hatred, but we also allow them to do so.

Equality and liberty

They take advantage of our jobless youth to cause violence under an already divisive and polarised political climate.

It is time voters forgot about their ethnicity and backed leaders truly committed to justice, equality and liberty.

Fighting over politicians will get us nowhere brethren.


Twitter: @JanetOtieno

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Why fighting over politicians will get you nowhere

Posted JANET OTIENO-PROSPER

on  Tuesday, April 11   2017 at  10:50

In August, Kenyans are going to vote for new leaders.

It is a few months to the elections, but people are seemingly charged if social media posts are anything to go by. Voters are declaring their preferred candidates and spewing hatred towards those with divergent opinions.

Some of the posts are so unsettling. We should thank God for enabling us to live in a beautiful country with so much diversity where people hold different opinions.

Though we are all open to biases, it is practically becoming difficult to have educated conversations with people from a different political divide. We forget about issues that we need tackled and start dragging personalities under the bus.

It is more about settling tribal scores; issues come last on the agenda.

With the increasing political assaults on social media coming from people who are well educated and exposed, we need to be very afraid. 

THEORIES

Michael Huemer in his study, Why People are irrational about Politics explains that there are several theories that lead people to making different conclusions.

One of them is the miscalculation theory; because politics is a difficult subject to comprehend, many people unknowingly make mistakes forcing them to disagree with others of a different viewpoint.

Another theory is ignorance where people rush to certain conclusions because they lack sufficient information on a political subject. This is why many political disputes are about the subjects other than issues.

Now you know where our personality-based politics originate from.

Another one is the divergent theory because people judge based on moral and evaluative issues thereby developing fundamental values.

Then we have the irrational theory where people just refuse to reason.

VERBAL TIRADES

So we all fall in some category and that explains why some people get angry just by the mere presence of person with a different political view.

I know some of our political differences are quite puzzling but we need to put our differences aside since we have goals as a nation. These goals cannot be achieved since the verbal tirades make me believe that it will be impossible to find a common ground if leaders don't reign their online armies.  

We need to end these long-winded arguments on social media platforms because shameless fights won't take us anywhere.

Let's just battle it out on the ballot. You know I have wondered why we as human beings abuse and even kill each other for politics and ethnicity instead of viewing others as diverse opportunities to make our nation a better place.

Politicians know how to fuel hatred but we also allow them to do so. They take advantage of our jobless youth to cause violence under an already divisive and polarised political climate. 

It is time for the voters to forget about our ethnicity and back leaders who are truly committed to justice, equality and liberty. Fighting over politicians will get us nowhere brethren.

Twitter: @JanetOtieno

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Racist attacks belie presence of Africans in India for centuries

Posted RASNA WARAH

on  Monday, April 3   2017 at  19:25

The brutal mob attack on a group of Nigerian students in a shopping mall in the city of Greater Noida has generated a lot of discussion about how Africans in India are treated.

Although the government has condemned the attack, the incident has once again raised the issue of racism in India.

Africans studying in India report being routinely discriminated against by shopkeepers and landlords.

Residents complain that African students fail to assimilate into Indian culture and are responsible for introducing bad habits, such as alcohol and drug abuse, into their society.

Media reports indicate that the Nigerians were attacked because it was believed that they supplied drugs to an Indian man who died of an overdose.

However, past incidents indicate that often Africans are blamed for crimes they have not committed.

Was harassed

Last year, a Tanzanian woman in Bangalore was harassed and nearly stripped naked by a mob after a Sudanese man allegedly ran his car over a woman.

Ironically, the latest incident occurred not long after an Indian engineer was shot dead by a white racist in a bar in Kansas, United States.

That murder generated a lot of furore among Indians in India and America, many of whom favoured Donald Trump’s presidency, but who are now having second thoughts about his paranoia-fuelled racist policies that threaten to keep the majority of the world’s people, including Indians, from entering the US.

The attacks in Greater Noida and Kansas may have been racially motivated, but they are occurring at a time when ultranationalism and hatred of “the other” are being associated with patriotism in both India and the US.

As one Indian commentator noted, India’s ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)’s hypernationalistic “Hindutva” ideology has found common cause with Trumpism.

Fuelled by ignorance

This ideology is fuelled by ignorance. Last week, at a seminar titled, “Connectivity Revisited: India, Kenya and the Indian Ocean”, hosted by the Indian High Commission in Kenya, many participants lamented that both Indians and Kenyans have little knowledge of each other’s cultures and history.

Yet, India and the East African coast have had trade links for centuries.

When Vasco da Gama arrived in Mombasa in the 15th century, Indians had already established trading positions there.

In the 19th century, most of the commerce in Zanzibar was controlled by Indians.

With the building of the Uganda Railway at the beginning of the 20th century, the East African interior opened up to Indian trade.

These pioneer

Indians also took up clerical and other posts in the British colonial administration. Later, some participated in the struggle for independence.

The descendants of these pioneer Indians are found today across all East Africa.

However, while the history of East African Indians has been widely documented, little is known about the many Africans who went to India and settled there.

People of African descent known as the Sidis have been living in the Indian state of Gujarat for centuries.

Also known as the “African Sufis of Gujarat”, the Sidis are known for their Africa-inspired music and dance called Sidi Goma, which they have performed in various parts of the world, including Zanzibar and Kenya.

Their songs

It is believed that the Sidis’ origins lie in East Africa; many of their songs are peppered with Kiswahili words.

Even less known is the fact that many Africans were coopted into India’s aristocracy since the 14th century.

These former slaves came mainly from Ethiopia and Sudan and were taken to India by Arab slave traders who sold them to kings, rich merchants and aristocrats.

However, not all of them remained slaves. Some rose through the ranks to become nobles and generals.

Still classified

One of them, Malik Ambar, a slave-turned-general, held a prominent position in the Ahmadnagar Sultanate in western India in the 17th century.

Evidence of Africans playing a role in India’s history can be found in an exhibition of paintings that depict Africans participating in various events, not as slaves but as important members of royal Mughal courts.

The exhibition titled “Africans in India: A Rediscovery”, which was recently held in New Delhi and New York, shows that unlike African slaves in the Americas, many African slaves in India rose to hold military and other positions.

For their descendants, however, social mobility has not been easy; they are still classified as among one of India’s marginalised “scheduled tribes”.

rasna.warah@gmail.com